Canada is a country with a rich and diverse architectural heritage. Its architects have contributed to the design of buildings and landscapes that reflect the country’s history, culture, and values. Some of Canada’s most popular architectural styles are modernism, postmodernism, regionalism, and sustainability. These styles are evident in the works of some of the famous Canadian architects, such as Arthur Erickson, Frank Gehry, and Douglas Cardinal. Arthur Erickson was a Canadian architect and urban planner who studied engineering at the University of British Columbia and architecture at McGill University. He is Canada’s most influential contemporary architect and was the only Canadian architect to win the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal. His works are often modernist concrete or wooden structures that respond to the natural conditions of their locations, such as the Simon Fraser University, the Museum of Anthropology at UBC, and the Canadian Embassy in Washington, D.C. Frank Gehry is a Canadian-born American architect and designer who studied architecture at the University of Southern California and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He is known for his innovative use of corrugated steel, chain-link fencing, and other everyday materials. Douglas Cardinal is a Canadian architect based in Ottawa who studied architecture at the University of British Columbia and the University of Texas at Austin. His flowing architecture, marked with smooth curvilinear forms, is influenced by his Indigenous heritage and European Expressionist architecture. His works are among the most important contemporary Indigenous architecture, including the Canadian Museum of History in Gatineau, Quebec, the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., and the Global Centre for Pluralism in Ottawa.
1. Arthur Erickson
Arthur Erickson was a Canadian architect and urban planner. He is Canada’s most influential architect and was the only Canadian architect to win the American Institute of Architects AIA Gold Medal. Arthur Erickson was a modernist architect who designed buildings that responded to the natural conditions of their locations, especially climate. He integrated light and water features into his designs, horizontal elements, and terraces from the Far East’s vernacular architecture. Arthur Erickson was born in Vancouver, British Columbia on June 14, 1924. He grew up in a house with a large garden and developed an interest in painting and horticulture. During World War II, he served in the Canadian Army Intelligence Corps and traveled to India, British Ceylon, and Malaysia. He died in Vancouver on May 20, 2009.
Arthur Erickson studied Engineering at the University of British Columbia and received his B.Arch. (Honours) from McGill University in 1950. He was granted a travel scholarship and studied the relationship between climate and style in the Mediterranean. He taught at the University of Oregon and British Columbia for ten years. He founded Erickson/Massey Architects with Geoffrey Massey in 1962. Arthur Erickson designed some of British Columbia’s most important houses, such as the Filberg House, called “Canada’s most fabulous house” by Canadian Homes Magazine. He also designed some of the most iconic buildings in Canada and abroad, such as Simon Fraser University, the Canadian Chancery in Washington, the Museum of Glass in Tacoma, Robson Square in Vancouver, Roy Thomson Hall in Toronto, the Museum of Anthropology at UBC, 1 Cal Plaza in Los Angeles, the Napp Research Centre in Cambridge, and the San Diego Convention Center.
2. Frank Gehry
Frank Gehry is a Canadian-American architect known for his innovative and unconventional designs. He is one of the most influential and celebrated architects of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. He has been awarded many prestigious prizes, including the Pritzker Architecture Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Royal Gold Medal. Gehry is often associated with the style of deconstructivism, which challenges the traditional forms and aesthetics of architecture. He uses complex geometries, curving shapes, and diverse materials to create dynamic and expressive structures. He also employs advanced computer software to design and engineer his buildings. Gehry was born in Toronto, Canada, in 1929. He moved to Los Angeles, California, with his family in 1947, becoming a naturalized US citizen. He studied architecture at the University of Southern California and city planning at Harvard University. He worked for several architectural firms before establishing his own practice in 1962.
Gehry’s breakthrough project was his house in Santa Monica, California, which he renovated in 1978. He transformed a conventional bungalow into a collage of metal, wood, glass, and chain-link fence. The house attracted attention and controversy for its radical appearance and inspired Gehry to experiment further with his designs. Some of Gehry’s most famous works include the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, which opened in 1997 and became a symbol of the city’s cultural and economic revival; the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, California, which opened in 2003 and is acclaimed for its acoustics and aesthetics; the Fondation Louis Vuitton in Paris, France, which opened in 2014 and is a museum and cultural center housed in a glass structure resembling a sailboat; and the National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial in Washington, D.C., which opened in 2020 and is a tribute to the 34th president of the United States.
3. Douglas Cardinal
Douglas Cardinal is a Canadian architect known for his distinctive style of organic architecture that blends with nature and reflects Indigenous culture. He was born on March 7, 1934, in Calgary, Alberta. He is of mixed heritage, with his father of Siksika, French, and Ojibwe descent and his mother of Canadian, French, and Mohawk/Métis descent. Cardinal studied architecture at the University of British Columbia but left after two years because of his radical ideas. He then moved to Austin, Texas, where he completed his degree at the University of Texas at Austin in 1963. He was influenced by the human rights movement and the European Expressionist architecture he encountered there. He returned to Canada and established his own practice in Edmonton, Alberta, in 1964.
Cardinal’s architecture is characterized by smooth curvilinear forms, flowing spaces, and environmental harmony. He uses advanced computer technology to create his designs, often challenging conventional engineering standards. He is inspired by his Indigenous heritage and observation of nature, and he believes architecture is a spiritual act that requires the best of one’s endeavors. Cardinal has designed many notable buildings in Canada and abroad, such as the Canadian Museum of History in Gatineau, Quebec (1989), the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. (1998), the Grande Prairie Regional College in Grande Prairie, Alberta (1974), and the First Nations University of Canada in Regina, Saskatchewan (2003). His buildings are widely admired for their beauty, functionality, and cultural significance.
Cardinal has received many national and international awards for his work, including the Gold Medal of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal, the Governor General’s Award in Visual and Media Arts, the Order of Canada, and the declaration of being “World Master of Contemporary Architecture” by the International Association of Architects. He is considered one of Canada’s most influential contemporary Indigenous architects.
4. Raymond Moriyama
Raymond Moriyama was a Canadian architect who co-founded Moriyama & Teshima Architects and designed many major buildings worldwide. He was known for his humane and democratic architecture and Japanese cultural influence. He died in 2023 at the age of 93. Raymond Moriyama was an architect who focused on creating spaces that reflected the values of justice, respect, equality, and inclusiveness. He believed architecture should serve the people’s and the environment’s needs and not vice versa. He was influenced by his Japanese heritage and his experiences of internment and discrimination during World War II.
Raymond Moriyama was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, on October 11, 1929. He was the son of Japanese immigrants who ran a hardware store. During World War II, he and his family were forced to relocate to an internment camp in the Slocan Valley, where he built his first architectural project, a tree house. After the war, he moved to Toronto, Ontario, where he studied architecture at the University of Toronto and McGill University. He lived and worked in Toronto for most of his life until his death on September 1, 2023. Raymond Moriyama received his Bachelor of Architecture degree from the University of Toronto in 1954 and his Master of Architecture in civic and town planning from McGill University in 1957. He also received honorary degrees from several Canadian universities, including the University of British Columbia, the University of Waterloo, and Ryerson University. He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and a member of the Order of Canada.
Raymond Moriyama’s great accomplishment was his contribution to developing Canadian and international architecture. He designed many iconic buildings that reflected his social and environmental responsibility vision, such as the Ontario Science Centre, the Toronto Reference Library, the Canadian War Museum, the Saudi Arabian National Library, and the Canadian Embassy in Tokyo. He also launched the Moriyama RAIC International Prize in 2014, awarded every two years to a work of architecture demonstrating humanistic values.
5. Shirley Blumberg
Shirley Blumberg is a Canadian architect and a founding partner of KPMB Architects, a Toronto-based practice. She is known for her contributions to architecture and community and for designing projects that address pluralism, housing, and social justice issues. She was invested as a Member of the Order of Canada in 2013 for her achievements. Shirley Blumberg is an architect who specializes in academic, cultural, and residential projects. She has designed many award-winning buildings that range in scale from interiors to architecture and planning. Her notable works include the Centre for International Governance Innovation Campus, the Remai Modern Art Gallery of Saskatchewan, the Global Centre for Pluralism, and the Fort York Public Library.
Shirley Blumberg was born in Cape Town, South Africa, on February 4, 1952. She grew up in a Jewish family and was influenced by her country’s social and political issues. She immigrated to Canada in 1974 after spending a year in London, England, to escape the apartheid regime. She settled in Toronto, where she lives and works to this day. Shirley Blumberg received her education in both South Africa and Canada. She graduated from Cape Town in 1972 with a Bachelor of Architecture degree. She then completed her Master of Architecture degree at the University of Toronto in 1976, graduating with honors. She joined Barton Myers Associates in 1977 and worked as an associate for 10 years. In 1987, she co-founded Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects (KPMB) with three other partners.
Shirley Blumberg is still alive and active in her profession. She is 71 years old and continues leading and designing KPMB projects. She is also involved in various initiatives and organizations that promote equality, diversity, and inclusion in architecture. She has served on numerous juries and design panels, taught and lectured at several universities, and participated in various events and forums. She is also a mentor and a role model for many aspiring architects, especially women and minorities.
6. Bing Thom
Bing Thom was a Canadian architect and urban designer born in Hong Kong on 8 December 1940. He immigrated to Vancouver, Canada with his family in 1950. He studied architecture at the University of British Columbia and the University of California, Berkeley. He worked for Japanese architect Fumihiko Maki and Canadian architect Arthur Erickson before establishing his own firm, Bing Thom Architects, in 1982. He died in Hong Kong on 4 October 2016. Bing Thom was known for his innovative and holistic approach to design, which integrated social, economic, and environmental aspects. He designed various residential and cultural projects in Canada and abroad. He was especially interested in creating buildings that uplift and transform the communities they serve.
Bing Thom was from Hong Kong, but he considered Vancouver his home. He also had offices in Washington, DC, Hong Kong, and Beijing. He was influenced by both Eastern and Western cultures and philosophies and sought to create a dialogue between them through his architecture. Bing Thom received a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of British Columbia in 1966 and a Master of Architecture from the University of California, Berkeley in 1970. He also received honorary degrees from both universities, as well as from Simon Fraser University. He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and a Member of the Order of Canada.
Bing Thom’s great accomplishment was his contribution to architecture, urban design, and the public realm. He received many awards and recognition for his work, such as the Governor General’s Award, the RAIC Gold Medal, and the World Architecture Festival Award. Some of his key works include the Canada Pavilion at Expo 92 in Seville, Spain, the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts in Vancouver, Canada, the Central City mixed-use development in Surrey, Canada, and the Arena Stage Theatre Expansion in Washington DC, USA.
7. Jack Diamond (Abel Joseph Diamond)
Jack Diamond (Abel Joseph Diamond) was a South African-born Canadian architect who was one of his generation’s most influential and successful architects. He designed many cultural, educational, and healthcare buildings in Canada and abroad. He was also a professor and director of the architecture program at the University of Toronto. Jack Diamond was an architect who followed the principles of modernism and humanism. He believed that architecture should respond to the needs and aspirations of the people who use it, as well as the context and environment of the site. He was known for his attention to detail, quality of materials and finishes, and integration of art and technology.
Jack Diamond was born to a Jewish family on November 8, 1932, in Piet Retief, South Africa. His great-grandfather was a rabbi in London, England, and his grandfather died in a pogrom in Lithuania. His father migrated to South Africa before the Second World War. Diamond grew up in a segregated society and witnessed the injustices of apartheid. Jack Diamond received his Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Cape Town in 1956. He then studied philosophy, politics, and economics at University College, Oxford, graduating in 1958. He received his Master of Architecture from the University of Pennsylvania in 1962, where he studied with the famous architect Louis Kahn. He moved to Canada in 1964 and became the founding director of the architecture program at the University of Toronto.
Jack Diamond died at his Toronto home on October 30, 2022. He was 89 years old. He left behind a legacy of many award-winning buildings and projects, such as the Jerusalem City Hall in Israel, the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts in Toronto, and the entire campus for the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in Oshawa. He was also honored with many distinctions, such as the Order of Canada, the Order of Ontario, and the Governor General’s Medal in Architecture.
8. Brian MacKay-Lyons
Brian MacKay-Lyons is a Canadian architect, university professor, and founder of MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple Architects. He is known for his designs that combine vernacular forms and traditions with contemporary building practices. He has won multiple Governor General’s Medals in Architecture and the RAIC Gold Medal. Brian MacKay-Lyons is an architect who specializes in cultural, academic, and residential projects. He works locally and internationally, using Atlantic Canadian materials and techniques. He is also interested in urban design and has worked with Barton Myers and Charles Moore. Brian MacKay-Lyons is from Arcadia, a small river village on the French Shore of southwest Nova Scotia. He is of part-Acadian heritage and was influenced by the region’s history, landscape, architecture, and functionalist design. He currently lives and works in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he teaches at Dalhousie University. Brian MacKay-Lyons got his education in architecture and urban design from various institutions. He studied architecture at the Technical University of Nova Scotia (graduating in 1978) and later pursued his Master’s in Architecture and Urban Design at the University of California, Los Angeles (graduating in 1982). He also studied and worked in Italy, China, and Japan.
Brian MacKay-Lyons’s great accomplishment is his contribution to advancing architectural education and practice. He founded the Ghost Laboratory, a summer design-build program on his family farm in Upper Kingsburg, Nova Scotia, from 1994 to 2011. He also published several books and articles on his work and philosophy. He is widely recognized as one of the leading architects in Canada and the world. Brian MacKay-Lyons’s awards include 14 Governor General’s Medals in Architecture, Canada’s highest honor for architecture. He also received the RAIC Gold Medal in 2015, the highest distinction for an individual or firm that has made a significant and lasting contribution to Canadian architecture. He has also won many other national and international awards for his projects and publications. Brian MacKay-Lyons’s key works include the Dalhousie Faculty of Computer Science (1999), the Ship’s Company Theatre in Parrsboro, Nova Scotia (2004), the Canadian High Commission in Dhaka, Bangladesh (2005), and the Two Hulls House in Port Mouton, Nova Scotia (2011). He has also designed many houses on the coast of Nova Scotia, such as the Sunset Rock House, the Sliding House, the Enough House, and the Cliff House.
10. Marianne McKenna
Marianne McKenna is a Canadian architect and a founding partner of KPMB Architects, a Toronto-based practice established in 1987. She is known for creating architecture that advances cultural and educational mandates and catalyzes community building. Marianne McKenna is an architect who designs structures that enrich the public realm. She has worked on projects for science, engineering, and liberal arts programs, as well as for the cultural sector, such as concert halls, theatres, and museums. Marianne McKenna was born in Montreal, Quebec in 1950. She grew up in Westmount, Quebec, where she attended The Study, a private all-girls school. She moved to Toronto in 1980, when she joined Barton Myers Associates, a firm where she met her future partners. She currently lives and works in Toronto.
Marianne McKenna has a Bachelor of Arts from Swarthmore College (1972) and a Master of Architecture from Yale University (1976). She studied under architects Harry Cobb and Charles Moore at Yale and became friends with actress Meryl Streep. She worked for Bobrow & Fieldman, Architects in Montreal, and Denys, Lasdun, Redhouse & Softely in London before joining Barton Myers Associates in Toronto. Marianne McKenna is still alive and active as an architect. She has not died yet. Her great accomplishments include being honored as an Officer of the Order of Canada, being named one of Canada’s Top 100 Most Powerful Women, and being the first woman to receive a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Design Futures Council. Some of her key works and their dates are The Royal Conservatory TELUS Centre for Performance and Learning and Koerner Hall (2009), the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto (2012), the Mike and Ophelia Lazaridis Quantum-Nano Centre at the University of Waterloo (2012), the McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre (2003), Le Quartier Concordia for Concordia University (2009), The Brearley School in Manhattan (2019), the Center for Computing & Data Sciences at Boston University (2020), and the revitalization of Massey Hall and Allied Music Centre in Toronto (ongoing).
11. Brigitte Shim
Brigitte Shim is a Canadian architect known for her small house designs and integration of architecture, landscape, and interior design. She is a founding partner of Shim-Sutcliffe Architects, along with her husband, Howard Sutcliffe. Brigitte Shim is an architect who designs structures responding to their natural and cultural contexts. She is keenly interested in the relationship between architecture and nature and how they can enhance each other. She also pays attention to the details and materials of her projects, creating refined and expressive spaces. Brigitte Shim was born in Kingston, Jamaica, on December 8, 1958. She immigrated to Canada in 1965 with her family. She lives and works in Toronto, where she is a professor at the John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design at the University of Toronto. She has also taught at Yale, Harvard, and other institutions.
Brigitte Shim received her education at the University of Waterloo, where she obtained a Bachelor of Environmental Studies in 1981 and a Bachelor of Architecture in 1983. She also apprenticed under Arthur Erickson Architects in Vancouver in 1981 and worked at Baird / Sampson Architects in Toronto from 1983 to 1987. She met her husband and partner, Howard Sutcliffe, at the University of Waterloo, and they married in 1989. Brigitte Shim’s great accomplishment is her contribution to architecture as a designer, educator, and advocate. She has designed many award-winning projects demonstrating her vision and skill, such as the Integral House, the Moorelands Camp Dining Hall, and the Laneway Housing. She has also influenced many young designers through her teaching and mentoring and has served on various design juries and committees to promote design excellence. She has received many honors and recognitions for her work, such as the Order of Canada, the Governor General’s Medals, and the American Institute of Architects National Honor Award.
12. John C. Parkin
John C. Parkin was a British-Canadian architect who practiced from 1944 to 1987 and worked predominantly in Toronto. He was one of the leaders in developing modern architecture in Canada during the post-war period. He co-founded the firm John B. Parkin Associates with John Burnett Parkin, who was not related to him, in 1947. He also operated his own firm, Parkin Partnership, from 1970 to 1987. John C. Parkin was born to Canadian parents on March 24, 1922, in Sheffield, Yorkshire, England. He moved to Canada in 1939 and studied architecture at the University of Manitoba, graduating in 1944. He then went to Harvard University for further studies under Walter Gropius, the founder of the Bauhaus School of Design. He graduated from Harvard in 1947 and returned to Toronto to start his partnership with John B. Parkin.
John C. Parkin lived and worked in Toronto for most of his career, except for a brief period in the 1950s when he moved to Montreal to work on the design of the Dorval Airport. He died on 22 November 1988 in Toronto at the age of 66. He was buried at Riverside Cemetery in Lindsay, Ontario. John C. Parkin’s great accomplishment was his contribution to modernizing Canadian architecture and urban design. He designed many landmark buildings and projects that reflected his vision of functionalism, efficiency, and innovation. His notable works include the Toronto Airport Terminal 1, the Don Mills Shopping Centre, the Salvation Army National Headquarters, the Ottawa Civic Hospital, the Ontario Science Centre, and the Toronto-Dominion Centre.
John C. Parkin received many awards and honors for his work nationally and internationally. He was made a Companion of the Order of Canada in 1974, the highest civilian honor in the country. He was also awarded the Order of Ontario in 1987, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Gold Medal in 1976, and the Massey Medal for Architecture in 1958 and 1964. He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts.
14. Dan Hanganu
Dan Hanganu was a Romanian-born Canadian architect who designed many prominent buildings in Quebec and abroad. His personal style combined modern architecture with innovative materials and lighting effects. He received many awards and honors for his work, including the Order of Canada and the RAIC Gold Medal. Dan Hanganu was born on January 27, 1939 in Iași, Romania, in Moldavia. He studied architecture at the University of Bucharest and graduated in 1961. He worked in Romania for several years but left in 1970 to avoid joining the Communist Party. He moved to Paris, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts, and then to Toronto, where he worked for Victor Prus.
Dan Hanganu settled in Montreal in 1971 and started his own firm in 1978. He designed many housing projects of various sizes and complexities, which earned him recognition from critics and peers. He also designed office buildings, hotels, resorts, cultural centers, and institutional buildings. Some of his key works include the Pointe-à-Callière Museum (1992), the HEC Montréal building (2003), the Rimouski Arts Centre (2009), and the Cirque du Soleil studio (2011). Dan Hanganu was interested in the effects of interior light and space on the perception of architecture. He used natural and artificial light to create dynamic and expressive environments. He also experimented with different materials, such as glass, metal, wood, and concrete, to create contrast and texture. He was influenced by the context and history of the sites he worked on and tried to integrate his buildings with the surrounding urban fabric.
Dan Hanganu died on October 5, 2017, in Montreal, Quebec, at 78. He left behind a legacy of architectural excellence and innovation. He was praised for his contribution to the culture and identity of Quebec and Canada. He was also a professor and mentor to many young architects. He was married to Anca Hanganu, an architect practicing in Montreal.
15. Bruce Kuwabara
Bruce Kuwabara is a Canadian architect and a founding partner of the firm KPMB Architects. He is also the Chair of the Board of Trustees at the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal. He is known for contributing to the built landscape and his commitment to professional excellence. Bruce Kuwabara is a versatile architect who has designed cultural, civic, educational, hospitality, and healthcare projects. He is keenly interested in integrating sustainable building performance and aesthetics. He has also worked on large-scale urban projects and neighborhood developments.
Bruce Kuwabara was born in Hamilton, Ontario in 1949. He studied architecture at the University of Toronto and graduated in 1972. He worked with George Baird, an architect and architectural theorist, and Barton Myers, an American-Canadian architect who studied under Louis Kahn. He founded KPMB Architects in 1987 with Thomas Payne, Marianne McKenna, and Shirley Blumberg. He is based in Toronto, where most of his work is located. Bruce Kuwabara has received many awards and honors for his work, including the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Gold Medal in 2006 and the Officer of the Order of Canada in 2011. He has also won 14 of KPMB’s 18 Governor General’s Awards for architecture. He is a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and a guest lecturer at universities across North America.
Some of his key works include Canada’s National Ballet School, the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, the Remai Modern Art Gallery in Saskatoon, the Julis Romo Rabinowitz Building and Louis A. Simpson International Building at Princeton University, Manitoba Hydro Place, the Athlete’s Village for the Pan/Parapan Games in Toronto, and the Pier 8 waterfront development in Hamilton. He works on projects such as the Contemporary Calgary Art Gallery, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, the Hospital for Sick Children, and the Dream LeBreton community in Ottawa.
16. Étienne Gaboury
Étienne Gaboury was a Canadian architect who designed some of the most iconic buildings in Winnipeg, Manitoba. He was a Franco-Manitoban who was proud of his roots and his part of the country and whose architectural works reflected the prairie landscape and the cultural identity of his community. Gaboury was a regional prairie architect who integrated and celebrated his designs’ physical, emotional, and spiritual elements. He was influenced by the designs of Le Corbusier, a famous French architect, and he characterized himself as a “plains architect.” He completed over 300 projects in Canada and internationally throughout his almost five-decade-long career. Gaboury was born in Bruxelles, a small community in southwestern Manitoba, on April 24, 1930. He was the youngest of 11 children; his parents were French-Canadian farmers. He was a distant relative of Louis Riel, a Métis leader and founder of Manitoba. He grew up in a bilingual environment, speaking both French and English. He settled in Winnipeg after returning from Paris, where he studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts.
Gaboury studied architecture and Latin at St. Boniface College at the University of Manitoba, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in 1953. Five years later, He obtained a Bachelor of Architecture from the same institution. He also studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1958 to 1959, where he was exposed to the modernist style of Le Corbusier and other European architects. Gaboury’s great accomplishment was creating a distinctive and original architectural style that expressed his vision and identity as a Franco-Manitoban and a prairie architect. He designed key buildings in his hometown, such as the new Saint Boniface Cathedral (1972), the Royal Canadian Mint building (1978), and the Esplanade Riel (2003), all in Winnipeg. He also designed the Precious Blood Church (1968) in St. Boniface, which featured a tipi-style roof and a skylight above the altar. His work in Manitoba extended beyond Winnipeg, as he was the architect for the Helen Betty Osborne Ininew Education Resource Centre in Norway House, Manitoba. His most well-known overseas project was the Canadian Embassy in Mexico (1982), representing a dramatic departure from his usual style.
Gaboury received many awards and honors for his architectural achievements and contributions to the Franco-Manitoban community. He was named a member of the Order of Manitoba and the Order of Canada, the highest civilian honor in the country. He also received honorary doctorates from the University of Manitoba and Winnipeg and was inducted into the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada’s College of Fellows. He also received the Prix Riel, the highest distinction awarded by the Société franco-Manitoba mine. Gaboury died on October 14, 2022, at the age of 92.
17. Maxwell M. Kalman
Maxwell M. Kalman was a Canadian architect, real estate developer, and philanthropist. He designed over 1,100 commercial, residential, and institutional projects in Quebec before and after World War II. Maxwell M. Kalman pioneered modern architecture in Canada, specializing in efficient and economical design solutions for various buildings. He also innovated in shopping center design, creating Canada’s first, the Norgate shopping center, in 1949. Maxwell M. Kalman was born to Romanian immigrants on May 30, 1906, in Montreal, Quebec. He grew up in a Jewish neighborhood and attended Baron Byng High School. He moved to New York City to take architecture courses at Columbia University at night while working daily. He returned to Montreal and graduated from McGill University School of Architecture in 1931, one of the first Jewish graduates of the school.
Maxwell M. Kalman lived and worked in Montreal for most of his life, except for a brief period during World War II when he converted a foundry in Joliette into a facility for manufacturing components for the Canadian military. He died on November 27, 2009, in Montreal, at 103. He was survived by his wife, four children, 12 grandchildren, and 18 great-grandchildren. Maxwell M. Kalman greatly contributed to Montreal and Quebec’s architectural and cultural landscape. He was awarded the Order of Canada in 2006, the highest civilian honor in the country, for his achievements and service to the nation. He was also honored by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, the Quebec Order of Architects, and the Jewish Public Library. Some of his key works include the Norgate shopping center, the Jewish General Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth Hotel, and the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts.
18. Peter Cardew
Peter Cardew was a British-Canadian architect who died in 2020. He was the principal of Peter Cardew Architects based in Vancouver, Canada. He designed projects of different scales, including housing, schools, art galleries, and office buildings. He was known for his innovative exploration of structure, materiality, and spatial experiences. Cardew was an architect who focused on the quality and details of his designs rather than the quantity and size of his commissions. He was regarded as an “architect’s architect” for his high standards and originality. He earned the respect of his peers and critics and won numerous awards for his work. Cardew was born in Guildford, England, in 1939. He grew up in the suburbs of Surrey and moved to Lancashire during World War II. He attended Kingston College of Art in London, graduating with a Diploma in Architecture in 1965. He worked for several firms in England and Canada before emigrating to Vancouver, Canada, in 1966. He lived and worked in Vancouver until he died in 2020.
Cardew received his education in architecture from Kingston College of Art in London. He studied there from 1958 to 1965, with a year off to work on an exhibition pavilion in Stuttgart, Canada. He learned from influential architects such as Alison and Peter Smithson, James Stirling, and Denys Lasdun. He developed his skills and style through various projects and competitions, individually and collaboratively. Cardew was born on August 6, 1939, in Guildford, England. He lived in Surrey and Lancashire during childhood and in London and Stuttgart during his education and early career. He moved to Vancouver, Canada, in 1966, establishing his firm in 1980. He died on October 26, 2020, in Vancouver, at 81. Cardew’s great accomplishment was his contribution to the field of architecture, both in Canada and internationally. He designed buildings that were innovative, elegant, and responsive to their context and users. He created spaces that were engaging, expressive, and functional. He influenced many architects and students with his vision and mentorship. He received recognition and appreciation for his work, including the RAIC Gold Medal 2012.
Who are the famous Canadian architects in modern times?
Listed below are the famous Canadian architects in modern times:
- Frank Gehry: Frank Gehry, a Canadian-born American architect and designer, is known for his innovative use of corrugated steel, chain-link fencing, and other everyday materials. He has designed many world-known buildings, such as the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, and the National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial.
- Raymond Moriyama: Raymond Moriyama is a Canadian architect who co-founded Moriyama Teshima Architects and designed many major buildings worldwide, including the Canadian War Museum and the Canadian Embassy in Tokyo. He was known for his humane and democratic architecture and Japanese cultural influence. He died in 2023 at the age of 93.
- Bing ThomB: Bing Thom is a Canadian architect and urban designer who immigrated from Hong Kong in 1950 to Vancouver, Canada. He designed many projects in Canada and abroad, such as Roy Thomson Hall, the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, and the Central City mixed-use development. He was made a Member of the Order of Canada in 1995 and a Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Gold Medalist in 2011.
- Brian MacKay-Lyons: Brian MacKay-Lyons is a Canadian architect and a founding partner of MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple Architects, a Halifax-based practice established in 1985. He is best known for his designs for houses on the coast of his native Nova Scotia and his use of Atlantic Canadian vernacular materials and construction techniques. He received the Governor General’s Award and the RAIC Gold Medal.
- Marianne McKenna: Marianne McKenna is a Canadian architect and a founding partner of KPMB Architects, a Toronto-based practice established in 1987. She is an invested Officer of The Order of Canada “for her contributions as an architect, designing structures that enrich the public realm.” She has been recognized for creating architecture that advances cultural and educational mandates and catalyzes community building. Some of her projects include the Royal Conservatory TELUS Centre for Performance and Learning and Koerner Hall, the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, and the revitalization of Massey Hall.
Who are the famous Canadian architects with the biggest influence on modern architecture?
Listed below are the famous Canadian architects with the biggest influence on modern architecture:
- Frank Gehry: Frank Gehry is known for his innovative and expressive designs that challenge the conventions of architecture. He uses unconventional materials, forms, and techniques to create iconic buildings such as the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, the Walt Disney Concert Hall, and the Fondation Louis Vuitton. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential and original architects of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
- Jack Diamond: Jack Diamond is a Canadian architect who has contributed to the development of modern architecture in Canada and abroad. He has designed many notable projects, such as the York Square in Toronto, the Canadian Embassy in Mexico City, the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts in Toronto, and the new National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa. He is also a respected educator and mentor who has taught at the University of Toronto and Harvard. He has received many awards, including the Order of Canada and the RAIC Gold Medal.
- Brian MacKay-Lyons: Brian MacKay-Lyons is a Canadian architect recognized for his regional and vernacular approach to modern architecture. He has created many projects that reflect his strong links to the prairie landscape and the Franco-Manitoban community of his youth. His work includes the Precious Blood Church, the Royal Canadian Mint in Winnipeg, the Saint Boniface Cathedral, and the Esplanade Riel. He is also the founder of Ghost Lab, a summer design-build program that influenced many architects. He has been honored with the Order of Canada and the Governor General’s Medal in Architecture.
- John C. Parkin: John C. Parkin was a Canadian architect who was a leader in introducing modern architecture in Canada after the Second World War. He was the senior partner and partner-in-charge of design at the Toronto-based firm John B. Parkin Associates, which produced many outstanding works in a classical modern style. His projects include the Ontario Medical Association Building, the Sherbourne Lanes Housing, the Royal Ontario Museum, and the Toronto International Airport. He also advocated for modern design in industrial and urban design and received the Order of Canada and the RAIC Gold Medal.
- Étienne Gaboury: Étienne Gaboury is a Canadian architect from Winnipeg, Manitoba, noted for designing key buildings in his hometown and beyond. He is regarded as the province’s greatest architect and a pioneer of modern architecture in Canada. His work features Atlantic Canadian vernacular materials and construction techniques and is influenced by the region’s landscape, culture, and history. His projects include the new Saint Boniface Cathedral, the Royal Canadian Mint building, the Esplanade Riel, and the Precious Blood Church. He has been appointed to the Order of Canada and Manitoba.
What are the most famous architectural wonders in Canada?
Canada’s most famous architectural wonders are the CN Tower, the Château Frontenac, the Museum of Anthropology, and the Parliament Buildings. Firstly, the CN Tower in Toronto symbolizes Canadian innovation and engineering. It was the world’s tallest free-standing structure for 34 years, until 2007, and remains the tallest tower in the Western Hemisphere. The tower offers spectacular views of the city and Lake Ontario, a glass floor, a revolving restaurant, and an edge walk for thrill-seekers. Secondly, the Château Frontenac in Quebec City is a majestic hotel that dominates the old town’s skyline. It was built in 1893 as part of a series of grand railway hotels by the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is one of the most photographed hotels in the world. The hotel combines elements of the French Renaissance, Gothic, and Romanesque styles, and it has hosted many notable guests, such as Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Alfred Hitchcock. Thirdly, the Museum of Anthropology in Vancouver is a stunning example of modern architecture inspired by the indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest. The museum showcases a vast collection of art and artifacts worldwide, focusing on the First Nations peoples of British Columbia. Lastly, the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa are the seat of the federal government and the symbol of Canadian democracy. The buildings were constructed between 1859 and 1927, and they feature a Gothic Revival style that reflects the influence of the British Parliament. The buildings are surrounded by a beautiful park, offering guided tours, a light show, and a changing of the guard ceremony.
What are the most known architectural firms in Canada?
Canada’s most known architectural firms are Bing Thom Architects, KPMB Architects, Lemay and Patkau Architects. Firstly, Bing Thom Architects is a Vancouver-based firm founded in 1982 by the late Bing Thom, a popular architect and urban planner. The firm is known for its humanistic and socially responsible design approach and expertise in complex and challenging projects. The firm’s notable works include the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts in Vancouver, the Arena Stage in Washington DC, and the Xiqu Centre in Hong Kong. Secondly, KPMB Architects is a Toronto-based firm established in 1987 by Bruce Kuwabara, Marianne McKenna, and Shirley Blumberg. The firm is recognized for its design, innovation, sustainability excellence, and collaboration with clients and communities. Some of the firm’s award-winning projects include the Gardiner Museum in Toronto, the Remai Modern Art Gallery in Saskatoon, and the Kellogg School of Management in Chicago. Thirdly, Lemay is a Montreal-based firm founded in 1957 by Jean-Louis Lemay. The firm is one of Canada’s largest integrated design practices, with offices in Quebec City, Ottawa, Toronto, and abroad. The firm offers services in architecture, urban design, landscape architecture, interior design, and branding. The firm’s impressive works include the Montreal Olympic Park, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, and the National Bank of Canada Headquarters. Lastly, Patkau Architects is a Vancouver-based firm formed in 1978 by John and Patricia Patkau. The firm is known for its experimental and exploratory design approach and sensitivity to site, context, and material. The firm’s remarkable works include the Audain Art Museum in Whistler, the Fort York National Historic Site Visitor Centre in Toronto, and the Polygon Gallery in North Vancouver.
What is the architecture body in Canada?
Listed below are the architectural bodies in Canada:
- The Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB): The Canadian Architectural Certification Board is the first point of contact for graduates from professional programs in architecture in Canada and abroad who plan to become licensed architects in Canada. The CACB offers academic certification, accreditation, and foreign architect certification services. The CACB was established in 1976 and is a national independent non-profit corporation.
- The Regulatory Organizations of Architecture in Canada (ROAC): The Regulatory Organizations of Architecture in Canada is a collective of the eleven provincial and territorial architectural regulators in Canada. The ROAC works to develop and adopt nationally recognized standards and programs for regulating the architecture profession in Canada. The ROAC also conducts research and advocacy on the future of architecture and its value to society.
- The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC): The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada is the leading voice for excellence in Canada’s built environment. The RAIC is a voluntary national association representing over 5,000 members, including architects, interns, students, and allied professionals. The RAIC provides resources, education, awards, and advocacy for advancing architecture and the public interest.
- The Canadian Architectural Licensing Authorities (CALA): The Canadian Architectural Licensing Authorities is a federation of the eleven provincial and territorial associations that regulate the profession of architecture in Canada. The CALA is responsible for establishing national standards for the education, experience, and examination requirements for architectural licensure in Canada. The CALA also facilitates professional mobility and reciprocity agreements with other countries.
What is the most popular architectural style in Canada?
Canada’s most popular architectural style is the bay-and-gable style. The bay-and-gable style was popular in Toronto in the 1870s and is characterized by long and narrow lots, large bay windows, and steep gables. The Victorian era Gothic Revival style influenced the style and the need to maximize light and space in dense urban areas. The bay-and-gable style is still prevalent in many neighborhoods in Toronto, such as Cabbagetown, the Annex, and Kensington Market. The style is also considered a symbol of Canadian innovation and engineering.
What are the most used house-building materials in Canada?
The most used house-building materials in Canada are wood and brick. Wood is preferred for most houses in Canada because it is cheap, easy to use, insulating, and suitable for the Canadian climate. Wood is also a traditional and cultural material that reflects the history and identity of Canada. Brick is another common material for houses in Canada, especially in modern and urban areas. The brick is durable, fire-resistant, and aesthetically pleasing. Brick also offers a variety of colors and textures to suit different styles and preferences. Both wood and brick are widely available and environmentally friendly materials that can create comfortable and attractive homes in Canada.
Do building materials affect the payment of an architect?
Yes, building materials can affect the payment of an architect. Different materials have different costs, availability, durability, and environmental impact. These factors can influence a project’s design, complexity, and feasibility. The use of natural or recycled materials may reduce the construction cost but increase the design challenge while using high-end or imported materials may increase the construction cost but improve the quality and aesthetics of the project, wherein architects must carefully consider the choice of materials and adjust their fees accordingly. Some architects charge a percentage of the total construction cost, which means their payment will vary depending on the materials used, while others charge a fixed fee or an hourly rate, which means their payment will depend on the time and effort spent on the project.
How much is the salary of an architect in Canada?
The average salary for an architect in Canada is $126505 (€115119.55, £110059.35) per year or $64.48 (€58.68, £56.1) per hour. Entry-level positions start at $107844 (€98138.04, £93824.28) per year, while most experienced workers make up to $156961 (€142834.51, £136556.07) per year.
What Canadian states have the highest salaries for architects?
The Canadian states with the highest salaries for architects are Alberta, Ontario, and British Columbia. Architects in Alberta can earn $109828 (€99943.48, £95550.36) per year. In Ontario, the average salary for architects is $113336 (€103135.76, £98602.32) annually, while architects practicing in British Columbia receive an average salary of $111323 (€101303.93, £96851.01) per year.