Photoshop: Should You Buy It? The Architect Verdict!

Adobe Photoshop is a leading software in image editing and graphic design developed by Adobe Systems. It emerged in 1987, created by Thomas and John Knoll. Photoshop has evolved into an industry standard for various creative professionals. It offers photo retouching, image editing, graphic design, and digital painting. Its capabilities extend to non-destructive editing, compositing, and camera rotation. Available in versions like Photoshop CC and Photoshop Elements, it’s accessible via Adobe’s Creative Cloud subscription. Photoshop operates on Windows and macOS, requiring systems like Windows 10 64-bit or macOS 10.14 or newer. It demands a 64-bit processor, 8GB RAM, 4GB HDD space, and a DirectX 12 GPU. Adobe offers various licensing options for Photoshop, mainly through a Creative Cloud subscription. The individual app subscription costs $10 (€9, £8) monthly, while the entire Creative Cloud suite costs $53 (€48, £42) monthly. Educational and team pricing also exists. Photoshop is more beginner-friendly due to its complexity and extensive feature set. Learning resources are available for new users. Photoshop’s capabilities include 3D rendering, leveraging the graphics processor for enhanced performance. Photoshop does not include Building Information Modeling (BIM) capabilities. It focuses on 2D image editing rather than integrated 3D modeling. Adobe Photoshop promotes collaboration through tools like cloud document sharing and integration with platforms like Asana. A mobile version of Photoshop is available for Android and iOS, facilitating on-site work and presentations. ArchitectureLab recommends Photoshop for architects due to its broad capabilities in enhancing architectural work. Other architectural software options include FreeCAD, Blender, LibreCAD, BricsCAD, and SketchUp. For better productivity in Photoshop, peripherals like graphics tablets, secondary displays, custom keyboards, gaming mice, SSD storage, and calibrated monitors are beneficial.

What is Photoshop?

Photoshop is a powerful and widely used image editing and graphic design software application developed by Adobe. Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor and one of the most popular software tools for advanced image manipulation and editing. It was initially created in 1987 by Thomas and John Knoll and licensed to Adobe Systems in 1988. Photoshop has become the industry standard software for graphic designers, photographers, web designers, and many other creative professionals to edit, retouch, and compose images. Photoshop allows users to manipulate pixel-based pictures and graphics in multiple layers. Key capabilities include photo retouching, image editing, graphic design, web design, digital painting, and more. Photoshop uses selection, cloning, cropping, and eraser tools to edit images precisely. Advanced features include non-destructive editing, compositing, and fluid camera rotation. The Photoshop family includes Photoshop CC, the complete professional version; Photoshop Elements, a lighter consumer-focused version; and apps like Photoshop Camera and Photoshop Mix, which provide more targeted functionality. Photoshop CC is available via subscription as part of Adobe’s Creative Cloud, giving users access to cloud storage and the ability to work across devices.

The ArchitectureLab Verdict: Should You Buy Photoshop?

ArchitectureLab verdict is that Photoshop is a must-buy tool for architects due to its versatility and wide range of capabilities. Firstly, Adobe Photoshop provides editing and enhancing images to create renderings and realistic visualizations. Photoshop’s expansive toolset offers possibilities to innovate and express architectural ideas, making it a valuable tool for architects. Secondly, Photoshop is not just a photo-editing program; it has evolved into an all-purpose software for most projects. For architecture students and professionals, it can be used for various purposes, such as editing photographs of a site, prototype models, finished models, or general research. Depending on the desired outcome, it can also create illustrations and perspectives. Lastly, Photoshop is included in the list of the 50 most essential architectural supplies by ArchitectureLab, indicating its importance in the field. It allows architects to edit, add, and create layouts and designs quickly and efficiently, simplifying architectural procedures and enhancing the presentation of architectural ideas.

Which company develops Photoshop?

Photoshop was developed in 1987 by Thomas and John Knoll. The Knoll brothers developed the initial version as a tool to display grayscale images on monochrome displays. 1988, they licensed it to Adobe Systems, officially releasing version 1.0 of Photoshop in 1990 under the Adobe brand. Adobe has continued developing, publishing, and distributing Photoshop and related products like Photoshop Elements, Photoshop Lightroom, and mobile apps. The Knoll brothers sold the full rights to Photoshop to Adobe in 1995 as it was becoming an essential tool across publishing, design, photography, and many other creative industries. Photoshop CC is Adobe’s current professional version of their Creative Cloud subscription. This gives users access to cloud storage and services and the ability to work across desktop and mobile devices. The Photoshop family of apps and services are all published by Adobe, but the original creation of Thomas and John Knoll has it all.

On what platforms does Photoshop run?

Photoshop runs on both Windows and macOS platforms. Adobe Photoshop is compatible with Windows and macOS operating systems. On Windows machines, it requires Windows 10 64-bit version 1809 or later. For macOS, it runs on version 10.14 (Mojave) or newer. The latest Photoshop CC 2021 can run on recent Windows and Mac operating systems. Specific system requirements include an Intel or AMD 64-bit processor, at least 8GB of RAM, a minimum of 4GB free HDD space, a DirectX 12 capable GPU with 2GB memory, and a screen resolution of 1280×800 pixels or higher. An internet connection is also needed for software activation. The operating system itself does not significantly impact Photoshop’s performance as long as it is up to date; using the latest OS versions like Windows 10 or macOS Big Sur is recommended for optimal experience. Adobe focuses its development and optimization efforts on the most recent OS releases. Photoshop relies more on factors like processor speed, RAM capacity, GPU power, and available disk space rather than just the operating system alone. Running Photoshop on older OS versions is often possible through backward compatibility or translation layers.

When was Photoshop first launched?

Adobe Photoshop, a leading raster graphics editor, was first launched in February 1990. The software was created in 1987 by Thomas and John Knoll as a tool for displaying grayscale images on monochrome displays. The Knoll brothers continued to refine the software over the next three years, adding new features and functionalities to make it more user-friendly. In 1988, they licensed the software to Adobe Systems, which officially released the first version, Photoshop 1.0, in 1990 under the Adobe brand. This marked a significant moment in the history of digital photo editing despite the software’s limited capabilities compared to today’s standards.

What are the licensing options available for Photoshop?

Adobe Photoshop offers several licensing options. Adobe has transitioned to a subscription-based model, and Photoshop is no longer available as a one-time purchase. The primary licensing option is through the Adobe Creative Cloud subscription. One can subscribe to Photoshop as a standalone app, which costs $22.04(€19.50, £16.50) monthly. Architects can opt for the Creative Cloud Photography plan, including Photoshop, Lightroom, and 20GB of cloud storage, for $9.99 (€8.80, £7.50) monthly. For businesses, Adobe offers the Creative Cloud for Teams plan, where Photoshop is available for $37.99 per month per license (€33.50, £28.50). Adobe also provides options for educational institutions. The Adobe Value Incentive Plan (VIP) is a subscription licensing program with ascending discount levels, ideal for schools or nonprofit organizations. For those who prefer a one-time purchase, Adobe offers Photoshop Elements, a simplified version of Photoshop. It is a one-time purchase and does not require a subscription.

What is the cost of Photoshop?

The standard monthly subscription cost for Adobe Photoshop as an individual app is $10 (€9, £8) monthly. This plan provides access to Photoshop on desktop and iPad, includes 20GB of cloud storage to save work, Adobe Portfolio to build a personal website, Adobe Fonts for unlimited use of thousands of fonts, and more. Photoshop can also be purchased as part of Adobe’s Creative Cloud suite of creative apps and services. The Creative Cloud for individuals costs $53 (€48, £42) monthly. This plan can get full access to 20+ Adobe Creative desktop and mobile apps such as Illustrator, InDesign, Premiere Pro, Lightroom, Acrobat Pro, and many more in addition to Photoshop. Creative Cloud membership also includes 100GB of cloud storage, Adobe Portfolio, Adobe Fonts, premium features for sharing and collaborating on work, and convenient syncing of settings and files across devices and apps. Additional storage upgrades are available if needed. Custom Photoshop and Creative Cloud pricing are available for teams and enterprises based on several user needs. Educational pricing is also offered for students and teachers, starting at $20 per month (€18, £16) for full access to Creative Cloud.

How can Photoshop help architects and designers?

Photoshop helps architects and designers modify, enhance, and streamline workflows and extensive resources. Firstly, Adobe Photoshop is a versatile tool that can significantly aid architects and designers. It allows professionals to modify and enhance images efficiently, providing quicker revisions and alternative options, which is essential in the fast-paced design environment. Secondly, Photoshop serves not only to enhance the aesthetic appeal of renderings but also to inject realism, depth, and context, helping clients and stakeholders better understand and visualize the result. It enables the architect to simulate materials, textures, lighting, and the interaction of the building with its environment. Thirdly, Photoshop integrates well with other design software architects use, streamlining workflows. The ability to import files from these applications broadens functionality and allows architects to refine visuals to achieve the desired level of realism or an artistic effect. Fourthly, Photoshop provides a vast library of resources, including an extensive palette of brushes, textures, patterns, and lighting options. This allows architects to experiment with innovative visual effects and enhance everything from complicated architectural designs to simple sketches. Lastly, Photoshop is also great for post-production work. After generating a base image using 3D modeling software, architects can use Photoshop to add layers, adjust colors, and add text to perfect their renderings.

What does Photoshop output, and in which format?

Adobe Photoshop focuses on raster graphics editing, manipulation, and compositing. This means it mainly outputs image files in bitmap or raster formats. The native Photoshop format is PSD, which stands for Photoshop Document. PSD files can contain multiple raster image layers, support transparency, masks, clipping paths, color spaces, and more – preserving all the editing capabilities made inside Photoshop. PSD files keep layers for further editing; Photoshop has robust support for exporting flattened raster image files in standard bitmap formats: JPEG, PNG, GIF, and TIFF, among others. JPEGs use lossy compression, which is significant for sharing/web while retaining good image quality. PNGs are a lossless compressed format, keeping all quality. GIFs allow image animation and transparency. TIFFs offer lossless quality retention, which is famous for high-resolution printing. The many export options allow customizing final output use cases – print, digital/web, video, and more. Photoshop can export vector graphic content through various formats: SVG, PDF, and EPS. Photoshop can export 3D image content from 3D layers. Video timeline panels allow the export of essential video files.

Is Photoshop’s output format compatible with other industry-standard software?

Yes, Photoshop’s wide range of raster imagery and vector graphics output formats are compatible with industry-standard software across design, creative, engineering, and manufacturing workflows. The PSD format preserves all Photoshop editing capabilities. Its layers can be imported to other Adobe apps like Illustrator or InDesign for further design work. Bitmap exports like JPEG, PNG, and TIFF are standard image formats compatible with virtually any software needing web, print, and video graphics – Microsoft Office, browsers, media software, printers, and more. Vector exports PDF, EPS, and SVG integrate with downstream vector design tools like CAD and CAM in manufacturing sectors requiring precision data for product development blueprints, CNC programming, 3D modeling, machine instructions, technical diagrams, architectural plans, and more industry uses.

What file formats does Photoshop support for exporting and importing designs?

Adobe Photoshop supports exporting and importing various file formats. For raster/bitmap image exports, Photoshop can output in industry universal formats like JPEG, PNG, GIF, and TIFF, which contain graphics, photos, and web images supporting color spaces and transparency. These standard formats import and integrate Photoshop designs into downstream software for websites, apps, videos, presentations, and print materials. Photoshop offers SVG, PDF, and EPS formats for vector graphic exports, representing shapes, logos, floorplans, and technical illustrations as scalable vector line art, preserving precision data compatibly for manufacturing stages of product design. These are imported accurately into engineering tools like CAD and CAM programs. Native PSD Photoshop documents retain the most editing capabilities with layers, blending modes, masks, and other features that can transfer those abilities by importing PSDs into Adobe apps like Illustrator and InDesign. For 3D, Photoshop can export 3D image files usable in 3D modeling software.

Is Photoshop considered user-friendly for beginner users?

No, Photoshop is not considered user-friendly for beginners due to its complexity and vast features. Firstly, Adobe Photoshop is a versatile software widely used for image editing, graphic design, and digital art. It offers many tools and features that can be overwhelming for beginners. Customizable and adaptable to different workflows, the user interface can be intimidating due to the many options and settings available. Secondly, Photoshop could be more user-friendly for beginners, especially those without prior experience in digital design software. Numerous tools, techniques, and concepts exist to understand, such as layers, masks, filters, and vector graphics, which can be complex for a novice user. Lastly, resources are available to help beginners learn Photoshop. These include online tutorials, guides, and courses with step-by-step instructions and practical exercises.

Photoshop: should you buy it? The architect verdict!

What are the rendering capabilities of Photoshop?

Adobe Photoshop offers various rendering capabilities that can benefit architects and designers. Firstly, it provides tools for 3D rendering, allowing users to adjust 3D settings, render 3D files for output, and save and export 3D files. The software’s 3D functionality includes customizable render settings that determine how 3D models are drawn and offers several presets with standard settings. Secondly, Photoshop’s rendering capabilities are enhanced by using the graphics processor in the system, which can provide a Photoshop experience. Certain features in Photoshop, such as 3D and Perspective Warp, leverage the graphics processor for better performance. Thirdly, Photoshop is mighty in the post-production process. After generating a base image using 3D modeling software, architects can use Photoshop to add layers, adjust colors, and add text to perfect their renderings. Lastly, Photoshop offers post-processing flexibility, which is invaluable for refining architectural renderings. A comprehensive set of editing tools, such as filters, layer adjustments, and color correction features. Photoshop allows architects and designers to work together on renderings more efficiently.

Does Photoshop include Building Information Modeling (BIM) capabilities for better project management?

No, Adobe Photoshop does not include integrated Building Information Modeling (BIM) capabilities or specific features for architectural project management workflows. Photoshop specializes in pixel-based bitmap image manipulation, compositing, digital painting, and post-production photography. It works at the individual 2D image level rather than with integrated parametric BIM modeling of 3D building components tied to back-end data and project lifecycle management of assets. Photoshop’s support for import and export of varied bitmap, vector, and 3D file formats does allow complementary co-use alongside dedicated architectural BIM software like Autodesk Revit, ArchiCAD, Vectorworks, and Rhino that maintain integrated building data models, libraries of components with engineering specification parameters, tools for clash detection, quantity take-offs, construction timelines, walkthroughs/VR previews.

How does Photoshop facilitate collaboration abilities among teams?

Photoshop facilitates team collaboration through cloud access work management platforms, supports version control, and shares for review. Firstly, Adobe Photoshop offers a range of collaboration tools that allow teams to connect, create, and maintain control at every step of their creative process. This includes inviting others to edit cloud documents created in Photoshop and the option to share these documents for viewing and commenting. Secondly, Photoshop integrates with various work management platforms like Asana, Workfront, and Smartsheet. These integrations are designed to help teams keep communication open, streamline the workflow process, and centralize it from beginning to end. Thirdly, Photoshop supports version control, which designers and developers need. Version control organizes files and keeps track of every change and version, enabling teams to compare versions of files to see changes. Fourthly, Photoshop introduces new features like “Share for Review,” which streamlines feedback loops and offers teams more creative control over their share. Lastly, Photoshop provides secure cloud storage and team collaboration with 180-day histories. Teams can review and restore earlier versions of cloud documents and mark essential versions permanently to keep them.

What are the minimum hardware requirements for running Photoshop?

Several minimum hardware requirements for running Photoshop. Firstly, the minimum hardware requirements for running Adobe Photoshop on a Windows system include an Intel or AMD processor with 64-bit support and a speed of 2 GHz or faster. The system must have at least 8 GB of RAM and 4 GB of available hard disk space for installation. A DirectX 12 compatible graphics processor with at least 2 GB of memory is also required. The operating system should be Windows 10 (64-bit) version 1809 or later, and the screen resolution must be 1280 x 800 or higher. Secondly, for macOS users, the requirements are similar. The CPU should be an Intel or AMD processor with 64-bit support, operating at 2 GHz or faster. The system must have at least 8 GB of RAM and 4 GB of available hard disk space. The graphics processor should support DirectX 12 and have at least 2 GB of memory. The macOS version should be Mojave (version 10.14) or later, and the screen resolution should be 1280 x 800 or higher. Lastly, a more powerful CPU, additional RAM, a higher-end graphics card, and a solid-state drive (SSD) for faster data access can all contribute to a smoother Photoshop experience. Users should also consider the complexity of the projects they plan to undertake in Photoshop when deciding on their hardware specifications.

How frequently is Photoshop updated?

Adobe Photoshop is updated frequently, with significant version releases occurring every two years. The current version of Photoshop is Photoshop 23.0. It signifies the 23rd major release since the software was first launched. It was preceded by Photoshop 22.0 in 2021 and Photoshop 21.0 in 2019. There are 1 or 2 major version updates over two years. Adobe issues “point updates ” between these number releases,” signified by the number after the decimal. These represent minor yet impactful updates focusing on useful new features, performance improvements, and bug fixes. Photoshop 23.0 was followed by 23.1, then 23.2, and so on until 23.9, before Photoshop 24.0 was unveiled; on average, minor. X updates occur every 2-6 months. Most updates contain some combination of long-requested capabilities by users, new creative tools, faster ways to accomplish tasks, compatibility updates for the latest OS/hardware, security patches, and fixes for widely reported problems.

Is there a mobile version or app available for Photoshop for on-site work and presentations?

Yes, Adobe Photoshop is a full-featured mobile app for Android and iOS devices, allowing on-site work and presentations away from the desktop. The Photoshop mobile app provides a touch-optimized interface granting architects, designers, and creators access to core Photoshop capabilities for photo editing and compositing, layered image manipulation, brushes, selections, masks, and more. Critical aspects like layers, blending modes, brush settings, and Adobe fonts sync with open documents on the desktop to enable continued work across devices. Photoshop mobile offers camera photo imports and edits, transparency support, annotation abilities, and animated GIF creation, among other functionalities ideal for field work review and markups. The app also enables easy online search/download for additional royalty-free images that can be quickly inserted away from studio resources. For presentations, finished Photoshop creations can be shared from the app to Behance or other portfolio sites and social media platforms. The mobile Photoshop interface facilitates the fullscreen graphic display of architectural proposals, models, and renderings during client consultations and design.

Photoshop: should you buy it? The architect verdict!

What are the advantages of Photoshop?

Listed below are the advantages of using Photoshop:

  • Powerful and versatile editing tools: Photoshop provides unparalleled, advanced, intuitive tools for manipulating images. Anything from simple color corrections to complex composites and graphics can be achieved. The flexible layer system facilitates non-destructive editing.
  • Industry-standard software: Photoshop has become creative professionals’ go-to image editing software. Its market dominance makes learning resources, plugins, and community support available. Photoshop skills are a standard job requirement in design and photography.
  • High-quality image output: Photoshop utilizes color management and high bit depth to maintain image quality throughout editing. Advanced users can tune images for specific print or web outputs via features like soft proofing. As the best-in-class editing software, Photoshop delivers final image quality compared to alternatives.
  • Extensive file format compatibility: Photoshop supports working with hundreds of file types, from JPEG and PNG to proprietary Raw camera formats. Complex multi-layered Photoshop documents can be handled alongside individual images. Files can be exported to various formats, making Photoshop a versatile hub for image editing.
  • Automation and batch processing: Photoshop’s time-saving automation features include actions for applying reusable sequences of edits, batch processing for one-click image enhancement, and timesaving templates via Adobe Stock. These streamline repetitive tasks and let creatives focus on specialized edits.

What are the disadvantages of Photoshop?

Listed below are the disadvantages of using Photoshop:

  • Steep learning curve: Photoshop has a steep learning curve. Mastering even the basics requires substantial time and effort. This complexity can be daunting and frustrating for beginners wanting to edit images. Staying on top of new features requires ongoing learning.
  • Expensive subscription model: Accessing Photoshop requires an expensive Creative Cloud subscription. This ongoing cost can deter casual users and add up over time. One-off purchases of alternative software can be cheaper in the long run. The subscription also ceases access if unpaid.
  • Demands powerful hardware: Photoshop’s advanced capabilities require a high-spec computer for smooth performance, especially when working with large files. Lag, crashes, and sluggishness will occur on older or low-end machines. Upgrading hardware is an additional cost to factor in.
  • Not ideal for batch editing: Photoshop needs to have batch-processing tools. Editing many similar images or applying the same edits to multiple photos is time-consuming. For batch work, Lightroom provides a faster workflow.
  • Occasional stability issues: Photoshop is a complex software that sometimes experiences bugs, especially after significant updates. Issues like crashes, hang-ups, lags, and errors can disrupt workflows. Workarounds exist, but troubleshooting problems is frustrating.

What do customer reviews and feedback say about Photoshop?

Photoshop has enjoyed hugely positive customer reviews and feedback from its position as the industry-standard app for raster graphics editing across creative sectors for over 30 years. The array of cutting-edge features like non-destructive adjustments, AI-based object selection/aware fills, and incredibly realistic painting/compositing results built up over the years earn consistent top marks from professionals in digital art creation, photography, graphic design, motion graphics, and architecture. Both power users and amateur creatives highlight its top-notch color correction, masking, dynamic brush engine, and type tools that enhance workflows. Users underline the necessity to invest time to learn its deep toolset, which directly unlocks Photoshop’s potential. Some critique its cost but mostly agree the value matched to contributions to their creative business success via top-grade image quality and efficient editing speed advantages merits the price, especially when included in complete Adobe Creative Cloud plans.

What other architecture software options are there?

Listed below are some of the other architectural software options apart from Photoshop:

  • FreeCAD: FreeCAD is an architectural software and an open-source parametric 3D modeler with advanced tools for architectural design like the Arch Workbench. It can produce 2D drawings and has BIM capabilities. The modular software is customizable via Python scripting. The interface is less refined than commercial alternatives. FreeCAD is free and multi-platform.
  • Blender: Blender is an architectural software that contains extensive tools for architectural visualization and walkthroughs. Photorealistic renders can be created natively. Add-ons extend functionality for tasks like documentation. The free and open-source software runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux.
  • LibreCAD: LibreCAD is an architectural software focusing on 2D CAD drafting for plans and technical drawings. It resembles AutoCAD in layout and functionality. As a free, open-source, cross-platform solution, LibreCAD provides a no-cost option for CAD drafting. The interface is intuitive but lacks some specialized tools of pricier alternatives. Extensibility is enabled via C++ plugins.
  • BricsCAD: BricsCAD is an architectural software that delivers .dwg compatible 2D drafting and 3D modeling at a lower cost than AutoCAD. It mimics AutoCAD’s interface and commands, providing an easier transition. Advanced 3D tools, customization via LISP, and excellent file compatibility make BricsCAD a powerful mid-range choice. A free trial is available.
  • SketchUp: SketchUp is an architectural software that excels at conceptual 3D modeling and design. The intuitive, self-documenting workflow suits architectural visualization well. A free web-based version exists alongside paid desktop variants for Windows and Mac. Custom workflows can be built using the Ruby API.

Does Photoshop require any special peripherals for better productivity?

Listed below are some of the Photoshop’s special peripherals for better productivity:

  • Graphics tablet: The best graphics tablets for architects like Wacom provide more precision and control on Photoshop when editing than a mouse, with pressure-sensitive pens enabling natural brush strokes. Their large surface facilitates quicker movement over the image. This aids in dodging, burning, masking, and painting. Tablets can prevent strain from extensive mousing.
  • Secondary display: A best second display for architects to view Photoshop workspace on one screen and full-size image previews on the other. This speeds editing by eliminating view toggling and zooming. Dual displays boost organization and productivity. Graphics cards supporting multiple outputs or display splitters enable a dual monitor setup.
  • Custom keyboard: The best custom keyboards for architects with programmable macro keys, like gaming models from Logitech or Razer, can optimize Photoshop work. Assign used shortcuts or sequences to keys for one-click access. This saves through menus and accelerates everyday tasks. Backlit keys facilitate use in darker editing environments.
  • Gaming mouse: The best gaming mouse for architects excels at detailed Photoshop tasks requiring accurate cursor control, like masking hair or cloning. Their sensitivity and ergonomic contours reduce hand fatigue over long edits. Programmable buttons can be mapped to shortcuts. Logitech and Razer offer advanced customizable models.
  • SSD storage: The best external SSD for architects’ drives provides fast scratch disk space on Photoshop for handling high-resolution media files. Their rapid speeds aid preview rendering and save time compared to HDDs. Thunderbolt 3 SSDs offer the quickest connectivity. Portable SSDs also facilitate accessing projects across multiple workstations. Storing media is better than laggy network drives.
  • Calibrated monitor: The best monitor for architects has color-accurate displays like BenQ’s SW series, ensuring edits match the final output on Photoshop, with hardware calibration better than software profiling. Their focus on color, contrast, and uniformity benefits toning, retouching, and compositing. They also aid in evaluating print results. Pricier than regular screens, they are vital for commercial photographers and designers.

Leave a Comment